Rice fields at Khonoma Village

Asia’s First Green Village – A Complete Guide to Khonoma

Amongst the mystical mountain ranges of Nagaland is the village of Khonoma – Asia’s First Green Village. It is surrounded by the largest rain forests in the state. Khonoma is home to the Angami tribe who have been living here for over 500 years. The village gained recognition from 2005 for its efforts in preserving the ecological diversity and its practices of sustainable living.

During my stay at Kohima, everyone I interacted with was delighted to know my next stop was Khonoma. From my homestay host, the local stall managers at the Hornbill festival, even my waiter at the restaurant, all raved about this little village. Being Asia’s first green village you could see it was the pride of all the locals. My expectations grew higher as I headed there and I must say I was not disappointed.

Khonoma Village View
Khonoma Village View

Get the most out of your trip with my Khonoma Travel Guide. Find out more about:

Why Visit Khonoma Village?

Nagaland has plenty of villages with its indigenous tribes spread across the state. However, Khonoma stood out for me as it’s a well-planned village with a tourist center. Their ingenious efforts on sustainable tourism, ample homestay options and the sight of wildflowers across the village all deserve admiration and praise. Khonoma with its stark natural beauty is maintained exceptionally well by its residents.

Khonoma Travel Guide Tip: Take a guided tour around the village and the terraced fields for INR 500 to see how the locals cultivate their fields. A guide will show you the different sustainable agricultural practices that are followed in the village.

Hiking in the remarkable hues of greens of the luscious rice fields of Khonoma is a must-do for everyone who visits the village.

The best part of Khonoma is with a short hike you get gorgeous views of the rice fields. The rice fields have these settlements which are used by the farmers to rest or have a snack. Vibhu, my guide and myself sat in the middle of this piece of heaven, watching the occasional farmer pass through the fields.

A-farmer-at-work-in-the-rice-fields-1
A farmer at work in the rice fields
rays of the sun captured over the beauty of the rice fields
A ray of sunshine over the beauty of the rice fields

Another tour the Khonoma tourist center offers is to the nearby Mithun (bison) sanctuary. But I spent more time going around the paddy fields and didn’t get a chance to visit the sanctuary.

Additional Things to See in Khonoma

The culture of Khonoma village is rich and has plenty of history and folklore to keep one entertained. The inhabitants of the village have built a mini-museum with artifacts of World War II.

Khonoma Travel Guide tip: The village walk to the old forts, morungs and cairn circles help you familiarize with Naga culture.

The Khonoma village architecture is largely preserved even today. A morung is a common feature in Nagaland. Traditionally it was used as an educational institution for the youth. They learnt about their culture, customs and underwent training in warfare, martial arts and craftmanship. They also bonded over folkloric traditions such as songs and native games.

However today, it is used to display various handicrafts, art and weapons used in battles.

Morung embellished with the cross motif and heads of hunted animals
A morung embellished with the cross motif and heads of hunted animals
A close up of the Morung & its decor
A close up of the morung & its décor

Another interesting sight is a place called “Dahu”, better known as a cairn circle. Plenty of small stones are placed around a big stone slab which is built to make announcements and conduct village meetings.

An intriguing ceremony which is held in Khonoma is called the “Feast of Merit” where the wealthiest person of the village organizes a feast for the locals to assert his social status. This ritual earns the privilege to erect a monolith and decorate the house with horns, swords and other Naga traditional ethnic motifs. The feast has a variety of meat on offer and this ceremony is celebrated like a carnival.

Angami house after a Feast of Merit
Angami house after a Feast of Merit

History of Khonoma

The village got its name from a local aromatic plant “Khwüno”. The ancestors baptized the village calling it “Khwünomia” where the Khwüno grows. Much later during the British rule in India, it got its current name Khonoma.  

Khonoma had shown tremendous grit and courage against the British army from 1850 to 1880s. Subsequently, the Britishers finally reached an agreement with the people of this hamlet town. The resistance shown by the Angamis of Khonoma is still fresh in the minds of the villagers who recounted tales of valour that are passed on by generations. In 1890, the village was acquainted with Christianity and today almost all its inhabitants belong to this faith.

The village is divided into three hamlets to guard the settlements from invasion. The three restored forts in the village pay homage to the martyrs who lost their lives fighting battles against the British. These forts made of rocks have been destroyed and reconstructed time and again. 

Semona fort war memorial
Semona fort war memorial
Reconstructed Semoma Fort
Reconstructed Semona Fort

Journey to Becoming Asia’s First Green Village

Like the rest of Nagaland, the people of Khonoma too were adept at hunting. This gradually destroyed their natural environment and affected the wildlife population. However, today things have changed and the inhabitants are committed to conserve wildlife and ecological diversity.

In 1993, over 300 Blyth’s Tragopan, the state bird of Nagaland, were killed in a hunting competition. This awakened the more environmentally sensitive people of Khonoma.

Hunting was prohibited with the formation of Khonoma Nature Conservation and Tragopan Sanctuary (“KNCTS”), which revived the endangered Blyth’s Tragopan. Further care was taken with vigilantes hired and soon steps were also taken with a ban enforced on logging all trees. In fact, today they even have a penalty for anyone found littering.

With these initiatives came the promotion of the upcoming eco-tourism destination by using solar-powered street lights. Safeguarding their diverse natural habitat, which they believe is crucial for their sustenance. It’s these conservational actions that make the people and village of Khonoma unique.

In 2005, the tourism ministry of India named Khonoma as India’s first “Green Village” and granted a sum of INR 30 mn (USD 7,00,000). This amount was directed towards improving the infrastructure of the village. Thus, setting an example to the many villages in Nagaland who can take a leaf out of their book.

Sustainable Agricultural Practices

For centuries Khonoma has been following sustainable agricultural practices in tandem with their conservation plans. The villagers prefer to solely rely on natural compost. They do not use any synthetic fertilizers or chemicals for agriculture.

Shifting Cultivation

Khonoma residents are blessed to have the Himalayan Alder Tree amidst their natural surroundings. Due to the tree’s apparent healing properties of reviving nitrogen content in the soil, the villagers began to value their presence. The spike in their routine harvesting cycles was also evident when they planted crops around these trees.

Guess what? A little less than half of these Alder trees are over 200 years old. Due to their conservation, Khonoma has been self-sufficient in the case of food. To keep up with this culture, specific plots are used to grow essential foods. The villagers periodically shift cultivation to another piece of land. This allows the earlier plot to replenish its soil fertility.

Terrace Paddy Cultivation

Terrace cultivation has been in existence since the establishment of the village. The terrace paddy cultivation is a form of irrigated agriculture. Water flows through a system of interconnected channels in a pattern preventing water logging. Today, other than rice, vegetable crops yielding high market prices are also planted. The Angamis and the Chakhesang tribes are proficient at terrace paddy cultivation which distinguishes them from other tribes of Nagaland.

Terrace cultivation at Khonoma Village
Terrace cultivation at Khonoma village
To the terrace rice fields at Khonoma Village
To the terrace rice fields at Khonoma

The People of Khonoma, Their Homes & Beliefs

The locals are engaged in serving the community and the welfare of the village. At an early age, individuals decide if they want to be involved in the farm or craftmanship. While touring the village I came across many enthusiastic families who shared heart-warming stories of their lifestyle and culture.

Local craftsmen are known for making woven baskets out of ordinary bamboo. Women weavers are known for their intricate designs on handmade shawls. Other than agriculture and craftmanship, the locals earn by hosting guests in their homestay. Some also work at the tourist center as local guides.

My guide at the Khonoma Village Tour
My guide at the Khonoma village tour

Houses in Khonoma are built of wood and the fencing around the house is usually in stones. The primary source of fuel is still firewood which is stored outside their homes. The village is well connected by cobblestoned roads. Almost all houses in Khonoma have a kitchen garden to meet their requirements of fruits and vegetables.

Pretty Village House in Khonoma Village
A quaint house in Khonoma village
Pretty House Flowers in Khonoma Village
Pretty house flowers in Khonoma

This Angami tribe village is unique with their traditions and beliefs. One of them being they bury the deceased of the family outside their house. They believe that the departed should always be close to their loved ones.

How to Reach Khonoma?

Khonoma is a 20 km bumpy drive from Kohima with the last stretch having mesmerizing views of the terraced fields.

Traveling by road in Nagaland is challenging, often a back-breaking journey. I travelled from Kohima to Khonoma in a share taxi which is the quickest but also the costliest way of getting here (INR 700).

The government offers bus services from Kohima’s Main Town Center (BOC) to Khonoma. However, the bus frequency is poor on this route. It is advisable to check the timings of the bus a day before you plan to travel to Khonoma.

How to Reach Kohima?

By Air: The state airport is in Dimapur having frequent flights from all over the country, however mostly via Kolkata. Then a journey of approximately 3 hours from Dimapur to Kohima.

By Rail: The nearest railway station from Khonoma is Dimapur. Although your train might not be directly going to Dimapur, one can board a connecting train from Guwahati to Dimapur. Guwahati is well connected to the rest of the country.

By Road: Kohima is connected to Guwahati and Shillong, which are major cities in North-East India. Guwahati is 352 kms and Shillong is 414 kms from Kohima. Khonoma is 20 kms from Kohima.

Where to Stay in Khonoma?

My Khonoma village homestay was in the midst of nature overlooking the gorgeous rice fields. It was the perfect opportunity to slow down and appreciate what nature has given us in abundance.

To understand and appreciate the Naga culture I stayed with a local family in their homestay and thus picked Sakhrie’s Homestay. It was run by the entire family who extend a sense of kinship to all tourists. The homestay provided vegetables of incomparable freshness sourced from their private garden. The cost for a night stay at Sakhrie is INR 500.

Steps leading to Sakhrie's Homestay
Steps leading to Sakhrie’s Homestay
Wooden floor at Sakhrie's homestay
Wooden floor at Sakhrie’s homestay

The village has a total of 20 homestay options, all of which are registered with the community office.

Other Khonoma Accommodations

Hotel Doviepie Inn is the most luxurious option available in this rustic hill-town and is known for its impeccable hospitality. A night stay in a deluxe room is approximately INR 1500.

Fireplace at Doviepie Inn at Khonoma Village
Fireplace at Doviepie Inn at Khonoma

Other Travel Tips for Khonoma

Entry Formalities

A trip to Nagaland would require an entry permit. It would be an oversight to not mention it in the Khonoma travel guide as you can be stopped anywhere for random checks by the Naga Police. You can apply for an Inner Line Permit (ILP) on the website of the Government of Nagaland.

When to Visit Khonoma?

Khonoma is surrounded by tropical rain forests and thus the weather is pleasant most of the year. The sun sets early in this part of the country and by 4pm the temperature starts to dip depending on the time of the year.

The ideal time to visit this beautiful village is between October and February or better in December around the Hornbill festival dates. Nagaland largely being a Christian population it is a festive atmosphere in December.

How Long Should You Stay in Khonoma?

Khonoma is my favourite village in Nagaland where I can immerse myself in nature. Also, I prefer traveling slow and give myself more time to explore. I suggest you must give a couple of days to know the community better. Besides, no matter how many rice fields one has seen, there is no such thing as an overdose of rice terraces.

While you’re here, Dzulekie – a nearby hamlet is also worth a visit. It is about 8 kms from Khonoma. To know more on my experience in Dzulekie, read my Blog on Things to do in Nagaland/Offbeat places.

How to Travel Responsibly in Khonoma?

The village has plenty of green waste baskets installed. Support their campaigns on cleanliness and do not litter.

There is a complete ban on plastic in the village. Do not carry eatables in plastic containers or use plastic water bottles.

Slow down, it’s an experience you need to absorb.

4 comments

  1. A very detailed and informative blog. I had a virtual tour of Khonoma through this blog. Love the way you have presented this and the pics are mindblowing. Keep it up Dev.

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